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IP Firewall is a mechanism of filtering packets crossing an IP network node, according to different criteria. System administrator may define a set of incoming filters and a set of outgoing filters. The incoming filters determine which packets may be accepted by the node. The outgoing filters determine which packets may be forwarded by the node as a result of routing. Each filter describes a class of packets and defines how these packets should be processed (reject and log, accept, accept and log).
Packets can be filtered based on the following criteria:
- Protocol (IP, TCP, UDP, ICMP, ARP)
- Source address and/or destination address (and port numbers for TCP and UDP)
- The inbound network interface
- Whether the packet is a TCP/IP connection request (a packet attempting to initiate a TCP/IP session) or not
- Whether the packet is a head, tail or intermediate IP fragment
- Whether the packet has certain IP options defined or not
- The MAC address of the destination station or of the source station.
The figure below illustrates how packets are processed by the filtering mechanism of the router:
There are two classes (sets) of filters - prohibiting (reject) and permitting (accept).
Furthermore, a filter may be applied to all inbound packets or only to packets arriving via a specific interface. Each received packet is checked against all filters in the order they are put in the set.
The first filter that matches the received packet determines how the packet are treated. If the filter is an accept filter, the packet is accepted, otherwise it is rejected. If the packet matches no filter in the set, or if the set is empty, the packet is accepted.
The rejected packet are discarded without notification to the sender.
Packet filtering rules
Every packet entering a router passes through a set of input filters (blocking filters). The packets accepted by the input filter set are further processed by the IP layer of the router kernel. If the IP layer determines that the packet should go further and not landing here, it hands the packet to the set of outgoing filters (forwarding filters).
Information on packets rejected by any filter is displayed on the operator’s terminal and the packets themselves are discarded without any notice to their sender.
A packet, "advancing through" a set of filters, is checked by every filter in the set, from the first one till the end of the set, or until the first matching filter. The algorithm is the following:
- If the filter set is empty, the packet is accepted
- Otherwise, the first matching filter decides what to do with the packet. If it is an accept filter, the packet is accepted. If it’s a reject filter, the packet is rejected (discarded)
- If no filter has been found that matches the packet, it is accepted.
IP Firewall parameters
In the "IP Firewall parameters" section, you can view the IP Firewall rules that are already created; you can create a new rule for the current switch group by clicking the «Add Rule» button, or you can permanently remove the rule from the configuration by clicking the «Remove Rule» button.
|IP firewall rule parameter||Description|
The «Up/Down» arrows allow you to organize rules list. The rules are processed one by one in a top-down order.
Read the information in the section "Apply, Try and Preview buttons for the configuration" in order to find out the output of the «Apply», «Test» and «Preview» buttons for the new configuration performed.